The different colors of the standard vacuum headcover and label represent different types of additives and test purposes, so you can choose the corresponding test tube according to the requirements. Vacuum blood collection tubes are generally divided into the following types:
1, red-head cap tube (dry vacuum tube without additives)
The inner wall of the blood collection tube is evenly coated with an agent (silicone oil) to prevent wall hanging. It uses the principle of natural blood coagulation to coagulate the blood. After the serum is naturally precipitated, it is centrifuged for use. Mainly used for serum biochemistry (liver function, kidney function, myocardial enzymes, amylase, etc.), electrolytes (serum potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, etc.), thyroid function, drug testing, AIDS testing, tumor markers, serum immunity Learn.
2, orange-red head cap tube (coagulation tube)
(This is indeed orange-red, but it is very similar to the red above)
The inner wall of the blood collection tube is evenly coated with silicone oil to prevent wall hanging, and coagulant is added at the same time. The coagulant can activate the fibrinase to turn soluble fibrin into insoluble fibrin polymer, and then form a stable fibrin clot. If you want to get the result quickly, you can use the coagulation tube, usually, within 5 minutes The collected blood can be clotted. Generally used in emergency biochemistry.
3. Golden yellow cap tube (blood tube containing inert separating glue and coagulant)
The tube wall is siliconized and coated with a coagulant to accelerate the coagulation of blood and shorten the test time. Separating glue is added to the tube. The separating glue tube has a good affinity and plays a role in isolation. Generally, even on ordinary centrifuges, the separation glue can completely separate and accumulate the liquid components (serum) and solid components (blood cells) in the blood. A barrier is formed in the test tube. After centrifugation, no oil droplets are generated in the serum, so the machine will not be blocked. It is mainly used for serum biochemistry (liver function, kidney function, myocardial enzymes, amylase, etc.), electrolytes (serum potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, etc.), thyroid function, drug testing, AIDS testing, tumor markers, PCR, TORCH, serum immunological testing, etc.
4, green cap tube (heparin anticoagulant tube)
Blood collection tubes containing heparin sodium or heparin lithium. Heparin is a mucopolysaccharide containing sulfate groups with a strong negative charge. It has the effect of strengthening antithrombin III inactivations of serine protease, thereby preventing the formation of thrombin. It also has a variety of anticoagulant effects such as preventing platelet aggregation. Heparin tubes are generally used for emergency biochemistry, TORCH, and blood rheology tests. When testing sodium ions in blood samples, heparin sodium tubes should not be used to avoid affecting the test results. Nor can it be used for white blood cell counting and classification, because heparin can cause white blood cell aggregation.
5, purple cap tube (tube containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and its salt)
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid is an amino polycarboxylic acid that can effectively chelate calcium ions in the blood. Chelating calcium will remove calcium from the reaction point and will prevent and stop the endogenous or exogenous coagulation process, thereby Preventing blood clotting, compared with other anticoagulants, it has less effect on the coagulation of blood cells and the morphology of blood cells, so EDTA salts (2K, 3K, 2Na) are usually used as anticoagulants. Used for general hematology (blood routine) examination and blood ammonia detection. It cannot be used for blood coagulation and trace element inspection.
6. Blue cap tube (blood tube containing sodium citrate anticoagulant)
Sodium citrate chelates with calcium ions in the blood sample to play an anticoagulant effect. The ratio of anticoagulant to blood is 1:9. It is mainly used in the fibrinolytic system (prothrombin time, thrombin time, activated partial thrombin time, fiber Proprotein). Pay attention to the full blood volume (2ml) during blood collection to ensure the accuracy of the test results. After blood collection, it should be inverted and mixed 8-10 times immediately.
7, black cap tube (containing 0.109mol/L sodium citrate)
The volume ratio of anticoagulant to blood is 1:4, which is generally used for erythrocyte sedimentation rate testing. When the ratio of anticoagulants is too high, the blood is diluted and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate can be accelerated. Pay attention to the full blood volume (2ml) during blood collection to ensure the accuracy of the test results. After blood collection, it should be inverted and mixed 8-10 times immediately.
8. Gray head cap tube (contains potassium oxalate/sodium fluoride)
Sodium fluoride is a weak anticoagulant. It has a good effect of preventing blood sugar degradation. It is an excellent preservative for blood sugar testing. When using it, pay attention to slowly inverting and mixing. It is generally used for blood glucose testing, not for the urease method to determine urea, nor for alkaline phosphatase and amylase.
With the automated development of testing instruments such as blood cell analyzers, biochemical analyzers, and immune analyzers, the quantity and quality of blood sampling have gradually increased. In order to ensure the quality of the test results, it is necessary to distinguish not only the various vacuum blood collection tubes but also the blood collection sequence of each blood collection tube.
The colors of the caps of various vacuum blood collection tubes are international standards. It is recommended that the blood collection sequence of multiple tubes is: coagulation tube (blue) → blood routine tube (purple) → erythrocyte sedimentation rate (brown) → biochemical tube (red, yellow). It is emphasized that the blood routine tube must be collected in the second tube anyway, which is related to the blood coagulation mechanism. When there is blood culture, the blood routine is the third tube. Because the collection of blood culture specimens requires strict sterility, blood culture tubes are used for blood collection. For the first tube, all blood collection tubes should be slightly inverted 1-7 times after blood collection, without shaking. Only by paying attention to the quality control before analysis, can the test results be accurate and reliable.